The need for wind energy in the energy system is to replace fossil fuel-based electricity generation to combat climate change on a global scale, but also to mitigate environmental concerns which are more on a regional or a local scale, which is associated with. Fossil fuel-fired power plants emission of particles, nitrogen oxides, or sulfur oxides.
#1. Considerable Elements we need for choosing wind turbines
- Average wind speed on site ( Vave )
- The maximum speed of a storm for 50 years (V50)
- The disturbance rate of the “standard deviation” in the change of wind speed is attributed to a record speed of 15 meters per second, and all the speeds are measured at the height of the feather pin (I15).
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How does the wind turbine work?
The production of electricity by a wind turbine is carried out by the transformation of the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Many stages Are necessary to this transformation, which calls upon very diverse technologies.
The transformation of energy by the blades
The blades of a wind turbine operate on the principle of an airplane the pressure difference between the two faces of the blade creates an aerodynamic force, setting the rotor in motion by the transformation of the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy.
The acceleration of the rotational movement thanks to the multiplier
The blades rotate at a relatively slow speed, of the order of 5 to 15 revolutions per minute, especially slower than the wind turbine is large. Most generators need spinning at very high speed (1000 to 2000 rpm) to generate electricity.
This is why the slow movement of the rotor is accelerated by a multiplier.
Electricity production by the generator
The mechanical energy transmitted by the multiplier is transformed into energy electricity by the generator. The generator rotor rotates at high speed and produces electricity at a voltage of around 690 volts.
Treatment of electricity by the converter and the transformer
This electricity cannot be used directly; she is treated with a converter, then its voltage is increased to 20,000 volts by a transformer.
The electricity is then routed through a buried cable to a transformer station, to be injected into the electricity network, then distributed to the most relatives.
#2.The main factors affecting the amount of energy produced by the wind
Types of wind speeds
Cut out: is the speed at which the turbine stops generating power
rated: The speed at which the turbine begins to generate a constant amount of energy.
Cut in Speed =4 m/s nominal
The cut of Speed=25 m/s nominal
#3.Seven Top wind turbines Manufacturers in the world
- Danmark Vestas.
- Spain Gamesa .
- GermanyNordex .
- USA General electric.
- India Suzlon.
#4.Wind turbines maintenance
1- Preventive maintenance
- Maintenance of transformers through testing of measuring and cleaning devices
- Container maintenance “Maintenance of oil circuits, hydraulic”
- Blades cleaning.
Maintenance is done through remote monitoring devices to monitor the state of the turbine through measurements on temperature on all internal components, which can detect faults before they occur and know their causes.
How controllers restart the wind turbine after the malfunction?
- Network setup malfunctions where remote operation is restarted after network stability.
- The defective temperature in control panels and oils as a result of the continuous rotation of the turbine
- Manual stopping due to maintenance, loss of connection to control rooms, or lack of turbine response to some orders and calculation errors.
#5.The big wind farm in the world
The largest wind farm in the world in the state of Texas, USA, which contains more than 400 turbines with a production capacity of 770 megawatts.
#6.The big wind farm in Africa and the Middle East
The Zaafarana farm in Egypt is considered the largest farm in Africa with an area of 156 square kilometers, and thus, Egypt will be the first Arab and African to produce electric energy from wind energy with a capacity of 550 MW, followed by Morocco with 286 MW, then Tunisia, then Algeria.
#7.Types of wind farms
Major wind farms from 100 MW to above
These farms are found in abundance in China and North America, because of the vast areas suitable for placing large projects
Small wind farms from 1 to 50 MW
There are many of these farms in Europe and Denmark as a result of the lack of free areas of the population in Europe, and this does not mean that major projects do not exist, but most are small farms.
#8.The negative impact of wind stations on the lands
The production of electricity through wind farms requires the occupation of large lands, so an area of kilometer square of wind turbines can produce 9 megawatts while one kilometer square of solar panels can produce 40 to 50 megawatts.
Thanks to the development of forecasting techniques and satellites, it has become easy to monitor the location of winds and their speed, which has made it possible to set up all major projects based on the data provided by modern surveillance and the error rate has been reduced to 5 or 4%.
In addition to this, many countries are looking to use renewable energy to meet their energy needs in order to reduce the pressure on traditional and impure sources by relying on wind power, which is the first clean source approved to produce electricity around the world.
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