history of wind power and wind energy
As early as 5,000 BC, people harnessed wind energy to drive boats along the Nile River. Simple wind-powered water pumps were employed in China by 200 BC, and windmills with woven-reed blades were utilized in Persia and the Middle East to grind grain.
Wind energy was finally used in new ways all around the world. Wind pumps and windmills were widely used for food production in the Middle East by the 11th century. Wind technology was brought to Europe by merchants and Crusaders. The Dutch invented huge windpumps to drain the Rhine River Delta’s lakes and marshes. Wind energy technology was brought to the Western Hemisphere by European immigrants.
Windmills were used by American colonists to grind grain, pump water, and chop wood at sawmills. Thousands of wind turbines were constructed by homesteaders and ranchers when they populated the western United States. Small wind-electric generators (small size of a wind turbine) were also commonly utilized in the late 1800s and early 1900s
As rural electrification projects in the 1930s stretched electricity connections to most farms and ranches across the country, the number of wind pumps and wind turbines decreased. Some ranches, though, continue to employ wind turbines to give water to their animals. Small wind turbines are regaining popularity, mostly for supplying power to isolated and rural locations.
#1.History of windmills from 1180 to 2020
The history of the operation of the first windmill dates back to the first century, where Heron describes it at this time as the first machine used in power generation in history, and the vertical axis of the mills was a time in Sistan (East Persia, Iran now) in the ninth century as described by Muslim geographers, and the horizontal axis of mills Air of the kind normally used today was invented in northwestern Europe in 1180.
Windmills spread in Iran in the seventh century, and windmills had sails that revolved around a vertical axis and were mainly used for grinding grain.
Windmills had spread to Europe by the twelfth century and the first wind turbine to produce electricity was a battery charger in 1887 invented by Scottish James Blythe. At that time, inventors discovered that windmills produced more energy if sails or feathers were rotated on a vertical rod.
This discovery eventually led to the development of Dutch windmills that were widely used in the Netherlands for draining water from the ground. It had four long arms, with cloth sails, or wooden slats, or shutters installed on it and it was imperative to move the vertical sails installed on the horizontal bar, to counter the wind. The first solution to this difficulty was the vertical mill, which is a windmill with a central shaft on which the main part of the mill can be rotated. As for the windmill, only the head is removable.
And several months later, the American inventor Charles Wow, built the first wind turbine that automatically operated to produce electricity in Cleveland and Ohio and at the beginning of the twentieth century there were millions of wind turbines scattered all over the world to pump groundwater and grind grains and generate electricity in rural areas, but in The 1940s wind turbines became little used, and this was the result of the widespread of fossil fuels.
During the seventies, the use of wind turbines and seeking to develop them in order to generate power after the oil crisis in Western countries and to search for clean energy.
#2.Development of windmills
In 1772 Andrew Meikle, a Scot, invented his spring sail, substituting hinged shutters for sailcloths, like those of a Venetian blind, and controlling them on each sail by a connecting bar and a spring. With the mill at rest, each spring had to be individually adjusted according to the power required; the sails were then self-regulating within limits.
Sir William Cubitt invented his patent sail in 1807 combining Meikle s hinged shutters with Hooper s remote chain control from the ground through a rod passing through a hole drilled through the wind shaft the process was comparable to the process of an umbrella; the sails were self-regulated by varying the weights hanging on the chain. In 1789, instead of shutters, Stephen Hooper in England used roller blinds and designed remote control to allow all blinds to be adjusted simultaneously while the mill was at work. Daniel Halladay invented the annular-sailed windpump in the United States in 1854 and Stuart Perry s steel production in 1883 led to worldwide adoption because, while inefficient, it was cheap and reliable.
When was wind energy first discovred ?
This groundbreaking discovery is thought to have been discovered by Professor James Blyth in 1887.
Wind energy arrived in the United States a year later, when Ohio inventor Charles Brush built a wind turbine to power his house. Since then, we have been improving wind turbines, both onshore and offshore, which has resulted in a considerably safer and more ecologically friendly energy source than its predecessors.
who first invented wind energy ( wind turbine ) ?
The first wind turbine is thought to have been erected in Scotland, UK. This turbine, designed by Professor James Blyth of Anderson’s College in Glasgow (now Strathclyde University), was 10 meters tall and was first put in the grounds of Blyth’s vacation house.
Blyth used the wind turbine to charge accumulators designed by chemical chemist Camille Alphonse Faure, which he used to power the lighting of his vacation home. This meant that Blyth’s modest small cottage was the first in the world to harness wind energy to power its electricity!
Blyth volunteered to share his power with his neighbors, but they were skeptical and thought electricity was “the work of the devil.”
where did wind energy originally come from ?
The Sun is responsible for the wind’s energy. When the Sun warms a region of the Earth, the air in the surrounding area absorbs some of the heat. Because the volume of warm air is lighter than the same volume of cold air, at a certain temperature, that warm air begins to ascend very fast. Air molecules exert greater pressure than slow-moving molecules due to their fast movement, therefore it takes a few of them to maintain the air’s natural pressure at a given altitude. When the hot, lighter air rises abruptly, the cooler air immediately expands to fill the void created by the hot air. To fill the vacuum with wind, this frigid air is referred to as rushing.
whene was wind ebnergy first used ?
Wind power is being used all around the world. It can be used for specialized purposes like as pumping water or grinding grain, or it can be used to power homes, businesses, and public institutions such as libraries, schools, and hospitals.
Wind power provides us with a renewable energy source that is:
Wind energy is constant because it always blows cleanly, it does not result in the cheap burning of fossil fuels, and it does not vary, allowing green energy providers to offer set, long-term contracts. Demand for renewable energy sources such as wind power is increasing, with most nations committing to achieve carbon neutrality over the next two decades.
is wind energy a renewable resource for power ?
The wind is a renewable source of electricity. In general, utilizing wind to generate electricity has fewer environmental consequences than many other energy sources. With few exceptions, wind turbines do not emit pollutants into the air or water, and they do not require water for cooling. Wind turbines may help lessen total air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions by reducing the quantity of power generated from fossil fuels.
The physical footprint of a single wind turbine is quite tiny. Wind farms, or clusters of wind turbines, can be found on open ground, on mountain slopes, or offshore in lakes or the ocean.
who is the first country in wind energy
in the table below you can see the Installed wind power capacity (MW)
|Country or territory||2015||2016||2017||2019||2020|
what is a wind turbine ?
A wind turbine is a modest technical marvel that seems deceptively basic. The most popular kind is the horizontal axle wind turbine, which consists of a nacelle and a rotor with three blades at the end. Vertical axle wind turbines are less frequent owing to air resistance issues.
how many power can a wind turbine generate ?
In the United States, a 1.5 MW wind turbine working at 33% capacity can power 415 houses. How much energy does the typical home use? In the United States, the typical home consumes 867 kWh of power each year.
Type of wind turbines
The two most common types of wind turbines are:
- WIND TURBINES WITH HORIZONTAL AXIS
Horizontal-axis wind turbines contain three blades, which are similar to airplane propellers. The greatest horizontal-axis turbines feature blades that are more than 100 feet long and are as tall as 20-story buildings. More power is generated by taller turbines with longer blades. Almost all wind turbines in operation today are horizontal-axis turbines.
- WIND TURBINES VERTICAL AXIS
in vertical axis wind turbines Blades are coupled on the top and bottom . he Darrieus wind turbine, named after the French inventor Georges Darrieus, who invented the concept in 1931, resembles a large, two-bladed egg beater. The vertical-axis wind turbine may be up to 100 feet tall and 50 feet broad in some variants. Because vertical-axis wind turbines do not perform as well as horizontal-axis turbines, only a few are in operation today.
advantages and chalenges of wind energy
Wind energy is unique in that it is one of the clean renewable energy sources that can provide electricity continually.The distinction between wind and solar electricity is that wind farms do not require much area, but solar panels do. Wind energy is accessible at all hours of the day and night, but solar energy is only available during the day.
The high cost of wind turbines, the difficulty of connecting wind turbines to the electrical grid, and so on are some of the obstacles of wind power.In order to pique the attention of many countries, the cost of wind energy must be comparable to the cost of producing power from nonrenewable sources.Winds are absent in many countries.
where can a wind turbine be placed ?
Wind turbines function on a simple principle: rather of using energy to create wind (like a fan does), they utilize wind to create power. The propeller-like blades of a turbine are turned by the wind around a rotor, which spins a generator, which generates power.
#3.Design and working of new wind Turbines
Rotating blades or sails They act as barriers against the wind in their simple form when the wind forces the blades to move, and some have shifted their energy to rotation to create kinetic energy. Rotation axis Connected to the rotation center of these blades or sails and fixed to the ground, it transfers the energy resulting from rotation to the generator to generate electrical energy through the generator. Engine structure contains1.Gearbox: increases the speed of the shaft between the center of the rotor and the generator. 2.Generator: It uses the cyclic energy from the column to generate power using electromagnetism, it uses the energy generated by the blades, sails, and behavior connected through the column to produce electrical energy, which generates an electrical voltage coming out of the power lines for distribution to the regions. Electronic control unit: a monitoring system that stops the turbine in the event of a malfunction and controls the deflection mechanism. Tower: supports the rotor and the motor structure, and raises the entire installation to the highest height. Electrical devices: bring electricity from the generator down through the tower and control many elements of the turbine safety.
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