Electric Cars | Fuel Cells

Electric and Hybrid cars

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Electric cars, hybrid cars, and hydrogen fuel cars

Table of contents 
tesla

  1. How do electric cars work
  2. Shipping equipment
  3. The main components of a fully electric vehicle
  4. Hybrid Cars 
  5. Hybrid car vs plug-in hybrid: what differences?
  6. Environmental benefits of hybrid cars
  7. Fuel Cell cars 
  8. Advantages of Fuel cell cars 
  9. One Disadvantage when producing hydrogen 
 
In this article, I will talk about electric cars, hybrid cars, and hydrogen fuel cars, and let’s start with the whole electric cars

# Electric cars

How do electric cars work?

All-electric vehicles ( EVs) do not have an internal combustion engine but an electric motor. The car uses a large range of traction batteries to drive the electric motor and must be connected to a wall outlet or charging station. Because it runs on electricity, the car does not blow exhaust from an exhaust pipe and does not contain typical components of liquid fuel such as a fuel pump, fuel line or fuel tank …
 

Shipping equipment

Electric vehicle charging equipment that includes Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Electric Vehicles (EV) is classified according to the battery charge rate.
 
Charging times vary depending on the battery’s depletion level, the amount of power you hold, the type of battery, and the type of charging equipment.
Charging time can range from less than 20 minutes to 20 hours or more, depending on these factors.
Charging the growing number of SUVs requires a robot network of terminals for both consumers and fleets.
 
 

The main components of a fully electric vehicle

Battery (Fully electric auxiliary)

In an electric motor vehicle, the extra battery provides electricity to power the car’s accessories.
 

Charging port

The charging port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power source to charge the traction battery pack.

 

DC / DC Converter

This device converts high-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the low-voltage DC power needed to power the car accessories and recharges the additional battery.

 

Electric traction motor

This motor uses energy from the traction battery group, and it drives the wheels of the car. Some vehicles use engine generators that perform both driving and refurbishment functions.

 

Built-in charger

It absorbs the obtained AC electricity through the charging port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It tracks the characteristics of batteries such as voltage, current, temperature, and charging status when charging the packet.


Control using energy electronics

This unit manages the flow of electrical energy provided by the traction battery and controls the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.
 
 

Thermoelectric System

This system maintains an appropriate operating temperature range for the motor, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.
 

Traction battery pack

stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
 

Transmission (electric)

The transmission transmits mechanical energy from the traction motor electrode for driving wheels.

 

 

 


Hybrid Cars 

A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses at least two different energy sources to move. Generally, a hybrid car is a car that uses fuel and electricity to move by means of two engines: one thermal, the other electric.
 
From a certain point of view, hydrogen cars can be considered as hybrid vehicles. They use the hydrogen from their fuel cells as a source of chemical energy to power a battery and an electric motor.
 

Hybrid car vs plug-in hybrid: what differences?

 
A hybrid vehicle combines an internal combustion engine, petrol or Diesel, with one or more electrical blocks, located on the front axle and/or on the rear axle. It can be rechargeable or non-rechargeable, the two categories differing on many points (technology, price, use, sales volume).
 
The electric range of a non-rechargeable hybrid car is limited to a few kilometers of city driving. With a low capacity, around 1 kWh, its battery is generally recharged thanks to the heat engine and a device for recovering kinetic energy when braking.
Conversely, the larger battery capacity of a plug-in hybrid car, around 10 kWh, gives it a range often between 20 and 60 km and a top speed of around 120 km / h. It is only when these values ​​are exceeded that the internal combustion engine takes over, knowing that charging is similar to that of an electric car, through a household outlet or a charging station.
 

Environmental benefits of hybrid cars

Hybrid cars, in particular plug-in hybrids, therefore have the particularity of taking advantage of the autonomy and fuel distribution network of conventional cars while emitting less CO2 and pollutants or even dispensing with fuel occasionally.
 
Engine hybridization is therefore part of the solution to the transition to clean vehicles that are independent of fossil fuels.

# Fuel Cell cars 

Hydrogen fuel cell cars are powered by an electric motor and are therefore classified as e-cars. The common abbreviation is FCEV, short for “Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle,” in contrast to a BEV or “Battery Electric Vehicle.”
 
There is one crucial difference between hydrogen fuel cell cars and other electric vehicles – hydrogen cars produce the electricity themselves. So, unlike in fully electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles, the vehicle doesn’t get its power from a built-in battery that can be charged from an external power source. Instead, hydrogen cars effectively have their own efficient power plant onboard: the fuel cell.

Read alsowhat is a fuel cell?
 

Advantages of Fuel cell cars 

Alternative propulsion systems are planned to minimize pollutant emissions, especially climate-harming CO2, but also other noxious gases like nitrous oxide. A hydrogen fuel exhaust gas consists of pure water vapor. Therefore, hydrogen fuel cell technology is emission-free locally, which means keeping the air clean in cities
 
Production of hydrogen requires electric energy. This electrical energy is used by the electrolysis cycle to break down water into its constituent elements, hydrogen, and oxygen. If the electricity used comes from renewable energy sources, there is a neutral carbon footprint to hydrogen production.
 In comparison, if fossil fuels are used, this would potentially have a knock-on impact on the fuel cell cars’ carbon footprint using hydrogen. How big the effect is depending on the mix of energy used. Hydrogen-fuel cell cars are no different than other hybrid vehicles in this regard.
 

One Challenge; Producing hydrogen 

 
Hydrogen production means losses during electrolysis. Therefore the total output in the energy chain « power to vehicle drive » is just half the amount of a BEV. Hydrogen can be emitted at times when electricity from renewable sources is over-supplied when the wind or solar energy currently generated is not otherwise used. The scope for that is immense.
 

Top 10 electric vehicle manufacturers in the world


#10 JAC
#9 Geely
#8 Hyundai
#7 Chevrolet
#6 BMW
#5 Zhidou (Chinese manufacturer)
#4 Zotye (Chinese manufacturer)
#3 BAIC (BAIC Group is a Chinese state-owned enterprise and holding company of several automobile and machine manufacturers located in Beijing).
#2 Tesla(The Californian company) :Model S,3,X,Y
#1 Renault-Nissan

 

Top 10 electric car manufacturers: https://www.energydigital.com/top10/top-10-electric-vehicle-manufacturers-world/renault-nissan-jan-march-26248


Representing Top 10 All-New Electric Cars 

That Will Hit The Roads in 2020

 
  1. Audi e-Tron Sportback
  2. Tesla Model Y
  3. Ford Mustang Mach E
  4. Rivian R1T
  5. BMW iX3
  6. Polestar 2
  7. Porsche Taycan
  8. Volkswagen ID 3
  9. Mini Cooper SE
  10.  Peugeot e-208



 

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