Talk about photovoltaic cells and their use began in the last decade, and Sharp was the first company to produce solar panels in a commercial form in the world in 1963, and after that, NASA used solar cells on astronomical observatories, and that was in 1968 when a panel was installed A solar capacity of 1 kilowatt on the surface of an astronomical observatory.
The official launch of solar energy, in general, was in the year 1973 when the global oil crisis occurred when the Arab countries cut off oil from America and the West, and the world began to think about alternative solutions and options for oil, which are renewable energies.
After that, research and studies on solar cells continued and were greatly developed
Solar cells are made mostly of silicon extracted from pure silica rocks or sands where we melt these rocks in special furnaces to produce raw silicon with a purity exceeding 95% and then chemically treated to reach 99,9999999% so that it is used to produce high-purity silicon crystals that are used In microprocessors and microelectronics, or with relatively less purity, it is used in the manufacture of solar cells.
After the production of silicon wafers, their surfaces are chemically treated and a layer of phosphorus or boron is added to reflect the thin polarity of the silicon, thereby creating a double joint capable of separating the current mounts that are produced when exposed to sunlight.
Silicon nitrate material is used to paint the surface of the cell and give it a blue color so that the reflection of the light falling on the cell will be foiled and given a greater chance to enter the cell. After that, the process of printing the silver conductor network on the front surface and the aluminum mesh on the back surface is heat-treated and thus the solar cell is ready to produce electricity.
After that, the process of printing the silver conductor network on the front surface and the aluminum network on the back surface is heat-treated and thus the solar cell is ready to produce electricity. These cells are grouped into rows in a row to increase the voltage difference or in parallel to increase the current in a process that is relatively similar to the way ordinary batteries are used. Therefore, some people like to call them solar batteries.
The cells combined together are called the solar panels and collect these panels in a similar way to get a matrix of solar panels, which we connect to the regular electricity network after we convert the direct current into alternating current using special transformers for this process.
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The laboratory is expected to have a wide range of creativity.
Pigment solar cells are one of the most important types of the third generation of photovoltaic cells, as it has several technical and economic advantages. Other cells include polymeric solar cells and nanocrystalline cells.
The solar cell works in several steps: Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon. Electrons are excited from their current molecular/atomic orbital. Once excited an electron can either dissipate the energy as heat and return to its orbital or travel through the cell until it reaches an electrode. Current flows through the material to cancel the potential and this electricity is captured.
The chemical bonds of the material are vital for this process to work, and usually, silicon is used in two layers, one layer being doped with boron, the other phosphorus. These layers have different chemical electric charges and subsequently both drive and direct the current of electrons An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity. 
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