#1.What it is groundwater ?
Groundwater is all water that falls below the surface of the earth, in line with the designation corresponding to that located on the surface Ground water, called surface water, is found in the pores of sedimentary rocks that were formed during Different times and eras, be very recent or very old for millions of years.
Groundwater wells are formed as a result of their infiltration from the surface of the earth into the inner layers, in what is known as the recharge process Which depends on the type of soil present in contact with the surface water (i.e. the source of nutrition), the higher the soil Disassembled, with large voids, and high porosity, it helped better leakage of water, thus obtaining Good groundwater reserves over time and ages.
In other words, groundwater is any water trapped in the ground, and its source, type, quantities, directions of movement and its level in the ground varies according to the following factors:
- Underground reservoirs.
- The properties of the earth’s layers and their chemical effect on the water, such as the quality of rocks and their composition.
Also, there are transboundary aquifers shared by more than one country, and rivers and rain are from
Groundwater sources through its infiltration into the soil according to the type of the earth’s crust and the obstacles it faces in Their tracks. It was also found that the constituent elements of groundwater change over time due to different levels of iron or Salts or temperature changes, and the characteristics of water differ from one place to another due to the location and quality of storage.
The depth of the groundwater also varies according to the nature of the topography. We may extract water from a depth of 15 meters at a time Up to 1000 meters in other locations.
Groundwater is confined between two different areas, which are the saturated area and the unsaturated area. Groundwater is used in a number of ways, including drilling underground wells, or through springs, or to feed rivers.
In many areas, such as villages, oases, and places far from cities, network connection services may not be available The general public for electricity, as well as the possibility that there are no sources of running water such as rivers and others, and therefore to meet the needs Residents of these areas have the required water for irrigation, agricultural, drinking, and personal use activities It mainly depends on groundwater wells, which are often at depths of few or large from the surface of the earth.
At that time, the importance and necessity of the need for pumps to raise water appeared, operating with either diesel or solar energy.
It is understood that groundwater is not only a strategic asset during droughts, but rather a storage stock
For future generations, so it should be preserved from pollution and maximize the use of every drop of water.
#2.Detection of groundwater
Archaeological discoveries indicated ancient man’s knowledge of ways to dig wells, and this appeared in many civilizations Such as the Pharaonic civilization, which was characterized by solenoid drilling, and Persia, which was famous by digging wells and irrigation channels, as this indicated their knowledge of the traditional method of detecting groundwater, and the Nabataeans in Jordan . Many believe that groundwater can be easily obtained from anywhere, but science determines The nature and type of the extraction mechanism according to the geology of the area and the depth of the water therein, then, is required before embarking on drilling Wells Determining water stocks and recovery rates (offsetting the quantities extracted), through careful scientific studies.
#3.Methods for detection of groundwater by phenomena and observation
Since ancient times, human kind has relied on several methods to discover groundwater through observations and technology Simple traditionalism that would suffice when searching for groundwater, in shallow or medium locations Depth is guided by the effects of water, plant species and the degree of their density, in addition to geophysical research methods for choosing
Places to drill water wells. You can also consider:
- Communicate with people who have lived in the area for a long time to know the quality and quantity of groundwater wells In their area they have a good experience.
- The distance to the nearest river from the site.
- Be guided by sanctuaries, if any, and follow the paths of animals to springs and lakes.
|The plants||Plants are good evidence of the presence of groundwater near them|
Dry plants indicate little water, while plants indicate little water
On the presence of groundwater near the surface of the earth.
|The mist of the earth||Fog is a normal phenomenon for condensation of water vapor, and its density depends on its quantity Evaporated water, and in the case of fog near the surface of the earth|
This indicates the presence of groundwater under the earth’s crust, so it is transplanted
Trees near fog, so their branches are tilted toward the groundwater
It is a traditional method known to man by witnessing, as well as the human position
Saucers at night in the area where fog appears, and when condensation of the amount
Large amount of water vapor in the dish, this indicates a large amount of water
|Wetlands||When the ground water is near the surface of the earth, an amount of water comes out To the surface through capillary action, which then becomes earth|
Moist, indicating the presence of water near it
|Topography of the|
|Be guided to designate the most suitable places for drilling wells, as the water level|
Aquifer is closer to the surface of the earth under valleys than under regions
|Coastal areas and|
|The area covered in areas with sufficient precipitation accumulates a layer|
Fresh water floats on near underground salt water
Beaches or sand dunes
|River Valley||Wide, open valleys with a slight slope give better drilling opportunities|
The wells give it narrow valleys with steep slopes
One of the common methods is to use two wires with a diameter of no less than 2 mm and a length of 50 cm each, one of which is copper and the other is aluminum (such as the wires used in the transmission of electric power), where the two wires are folded separately so that it forms a letter (L) and the folding area of the two wires is about a length of about After 15 cm, the two wires are held in one hand on the short side of the wire, while the end of the wire is left free to move horizontally and while walking in the desert or the area in which there is water, the convergence of the two wires is observed, and the greater the quantity and the faster the movement of the ground water, the closer the two wires are revealed. Water is only at a distance of no more than 100 meters, and although the method is successful, there is no scientific explanation for it. For science, most modern electronic and mechanical devices work on the principle of this method.
#4.Modern detection methods for groundwater.
With the rapid advancement of science and technology, man has tended to devise modern methods instead of traditional ones in detecting groundwater, and among the most prominent modern methods, shown in Table (2) for the detection of groundwater, are the following:
- Seismic detection method.
- Electrical detection method
|Seismic method||It depends on sending vibrations or frequencies towards the Earth’s surface, and when Its bounce and recorded on the device of the vibration recorder, is recognized|
The nature of the rocks and the amount of water they contain, the faster it will spread
The waves indicated that there was a large amount of water in the rocks.
|Electrical resistivity method||It depends on the resistance of the rocks to the electric current, so the lower the electrical resistance, the greater the amount of water in the rocks. This resistance depends in many cases on the amount of dissolved salts in the liquids permeating in the rocks, as it is inversely proportional to the amount of these salts.|
Table (3) shows some of the modern devices used in groundwater detection.
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The World Health Authority (WHO) has defined water Polluted water as:
“It is any change that occurs to the elements included in its composition, directly or indirectly, due to human activity,” which makes this water less suitable for the natural uses assigned to it or some of it.
It can also be said that the definition of water pollution is “the changes that occur in the natural, biological and chemical properties of water, rendering it unfit for drinking or the various uses and activities (domestic, industrial and agricultural).” .
Generally, groundwater is exposed in most of its areas to many roads and types of pollution, which are mainly It is related to the quality of land use and waste disposal methods.
The sources of groundwater pollution are classified as follows:
- Leakage in sewage networks inside cities.
- Throwing sewage water on the ground.
- Landfilling of waste.
- Gas stations.
- Oil tanks.
- Industrial storage: storing chemicals.
- Agricultural chemical fertilizers.
- sources of nutrition for water.
- Pollution from factories.
Acid rain. Groundwater is less polluted than surface water, during the passage of water from the soil layers
It filters and gets rid of suspended organic matter and bacteria, and then it becomes suitable for drinking and irrigation, unless the percentage increases The salts in it or were exposed to a source of pollution from those listed in the following table.
|Types of pollutants||Examples|
|Organic Materials||Carbon, carbonaceous compounds, gasoline, DDT, petroleum,|
|Inorganic Materials||Cyanide, nitrates, and arsenic that affect the environment.|
Bacteria that are created due to wastewater in the ground
(Which are not well treated)
|Heavy Metals||Cadmium, arsenic penetrates into the soil and is deposited in the groundwater until|
It reaches the bottom and eventually pollutes it.
Note: Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane, or DDT as it is known by its famous acronym, is a pesticide
Insecticide used widely to control insect pests, and is considered one of the best insecticides in terms of
Effectiveness, except that the negative effects of the compound and some products of its decomposition in the soil on the environment in general and its destructive effect On the animal environment in a way that greatly decreased its use.)
#6.The most important factors affecting the extent of groundwater pollution
- The presence of a superficial mud layer above the aquifer reduces pollution rates, for example the plain areas Flood in the Nile Basin and central and northern Western and Eastern Sahara.
- The susceptibility of groundwater to pollution increases in the case of distinct free-range reservoirs located near the level Water on the surface of the earth is an example of this in desert fringe areas, as opposed to what happens if it is located on Great depth as the unsaturated fraction with water reduces the concentration and capacity of pollutants.
- It is found in regular-grained sandy gravel components (with high permeability) or in fissured rocks
#7.WAYS TO PROTECT AND CONSERVE GROUNDWATER
After tall this phrases i made about ground water anf how we can find it through modern devices i want to say some words about the important thing we should consider toward this source of life( water) which is proecting and conserving groundwater.
here are 10 ways we can easly do in our daily life to protect and conserve undergoundwater:
- Go Native Use native plants in your landscape.
- Reduce Chemical Use
- Manage Waste
- Don’t Let It Run.
- Fix the Drip
- Wash Smarter
- Water Wisely
- Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
- Natural Alternatives
- Learn and Do More!
Source groundwater foundation
Thank you so much for your time we will like to see you in the next post which is (DRILLING OF GROUNDWATER WELLS).