Three principal Generation of solar Panels
In order to know each type, you have to know first what is a solar cell. A solar cell is a solid-state electrical device (p-n junction) that converts the energy of light directly into electricity (DC: Direct current) using the photovoltaic effect.
The process of conversion first requires a material which absorbs photons from the sun and then raises an electron to a higher energy state, and then the flow of this high-energy electron to an external circuit.
Silicon[SI]: is a chemical element (its symbol in chemical formula expressions are « Si ») that is present in sand and glass and which is the best-known semiconductor material in electronic components like diodes, diode Zener transistors.
1-Monocrystalline Solar Panels (Mono-Cells )
This type of solar panels (made of monocrystalline silicon) is the purest one. We recognize them from the dark color and the rounded edges.
2-Polycrystalline Solar Panels (Poly-cells )
Its cells are made from scraps of silicon that are heated, melted, and then cooled and assembled by a faster and more economical process. They have a bluish multi-faceted appearance typical of the presence of several silicon crystals.
3-Thin-Film Solar Cells (TFSC)
These types of solar panels are the easiest to produce and economies of scale make them cheaper than the alternatives due to less material being needed for its production.
This type of cells was originally introduced in the 1970s by researchers at the Institute of Energy Conversion at the University of Delaware and the most common type available I think is Cadmium