# Wind Turbine Blades

### Technical parameters of wind turbines, sites, and blades structure

**W**ind power currently occupies an increasingly important part in the balance sheet

energy from many countries and it now represents a production of 60,000 MW worldwide.

This energy source also has the advantage of being ecologically very clean since a wind farm fleet does not emit pollutants or greenhouse gases and does generate no waste and involves only minor risks on the environment. We can conclude that the ecological balance of wind energy is very positive.

#### Statistical wind modeling

To properly assess wind energy resources, wind power maps average available are established for various countries and regions. from this data, it is possible to deduce the average wind energy available on a year, expressed in kWh / m2, by multiplying the average power by 8760 (which is the

number of hours per year). In the same way, it is possible to obtain wind energy monthly average.

#### The Blades

The blades of a wind turbine are the most flexible part of this machine and their behavior modal has a great influence on its total dynamics and its energy performance.

#### Characteristics of the aerodynamic profiles:

The aerodynamic profile is the most important parameter in the design of the blades of aerogenerator, because of the energy performance of the machine depends directly on the aerodynamic shape of these blades. In the Figure below, the point furthest to the left is the leading-edge, the point furthest to the right is the trailing edge.

The chord is the segment connecting the leading edge and the trailing edge, the airflow is from left to right. The angle of incidence (attack) is the one that makes the chord with the relative wind speed.

**Chord**

**l**

**Thickness**

**h**

**Angle of incidence**

**alpha**

#### Aerodynamic modeling

In the aerodynamic modeling part, the optimal shape of the propeller of aerogenerator as well as the aerodynamic forces are estimated by the method BEM. These efforts will be used to assess energy performance as well as to analyze the structure of the propeller.

The optimal propeller design for a given site should be based on the speed of the wind corresponding to a maximum of recoverable energy (available).

#### Most common airfoils

Modal analysis of the blades

For the modal analysis of the blades, two methods are used, their results are compared. The frequencies were by these two approaches on the same order of magnitude, the corresponding eigenmodes have similar forms. These modes are also compared to those which exist in other works.

We can conclude that the first approach (solving the differential equation of movement) is a practical tool that is inexpensive to estimate the eigenmodes, despite a limitation compared to sophisticated software like **ANSYS (**Ansys: engineering simulation and 3D design software **)**.

#### The dynamic modeling of the blades

The dynamic modeling of the blades by finite elements made it possible to estimate constraints

dynamics for blades of complex geometric shapes, having different profiles and different materials.

This calculation showed that the blades made of composite materials are more resistant than

those in aluminum alloy, also the **NACA 63-421** profile is best suited, among those studied, because it obeys the requirements of resistance and performance. That is due to these geometric characteristics (its shape and thickness).

**The maximum efficiency of a Wind-Turbine**

The maximum efficiency for an ideal wind turbine is approximately equal to **59.3%.** In practice, this efficiency is never achieved.

In order for the propeller to extract energy from the wind, the speed of the latter must decrease when it crosses the propeller, an ideal machine should slow the wind speed by** 2/3**

Finally, extracting all the available energy from the wind is practically impossible, in practice, the efficiency of wind turbines does not exceed **45%.**

**Conclusion**

Knowledge of the statistical distribution (the frequency of each speed) of the wind site is

also necessary for the calculation of fatigue because it allows estimating the number of cycles of

during the life of the machine.

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