Description of HAWT wind Turbine
E-module: The E-module is located at the base of the wind turbine tower. The power cabinets and other components are fitted at different levels of the machine. An inverter here transforms direct current into alternating current adapted to the grid.
HAWT are Two Types
- Classical Wind Turbines (Danish Concept Wind Turbines ).
- Gearless Turbines.
Power Produced by The Wind Turbine
Dismantling and lifetime of wind Turbines
The lifetime of a wind farm is estimated at 20 years, once the operation is completed, the regulations specify, in article L 553-3 of the Environment Code, that the operator of a wind turbine is responsible its dismantling and the restoration of the site.
Made of steel and plastics, a wind turbine can be dismantled at the end of its life and is almost completely recyclable and leaves no pollutants on its site. The dismantling does not, however, plan to remove the concrete base of the wind turbine, because it has no interest in being recycled: the cost of transport would be much higher than the gain obtained.
- disassembly of the wind turbine.
- dismantling of additional equipment.
- dismantling of the delivery station.
- leveling the foundations.
Design of Wind Turbine
When the Wind Turbine starts and when it stops?
The monitoring and control system includes a computer that constantly monitors the state of the wind turbine while controlling the orientation device. In the event of a fault (for example an over- the multiplier or generator heats up), the system automatically shuts down the wind turbine and signals to the operator’s computer via a telephone modem.
In statically controlled turbines, the blades are fixed in the rotor at a fixed angle. This leads to a reduction in the energy produced at high speed, due to the presence of separation currents between the turbine blade and the wind.
In linearly controlled turbines, the turbine blades rotate linearly about their longitudinal axes, and to ensure maximum torque at the lowest speed, the operating and performance monitoring programs operate the turbine blade so that it extracts the maximum movement energy from the wind.
The capacity of wind turbines
why wind turbines are three-bladed?
The required rotational speed of the rotor
The speed of rotation of the wind turbine can vary from 25 to 40 rpm. The asynchronous generator which transforms kinetic energy into electrical energy requires a rotational speed of the rotor of 1000-2000 RPM. It is, therefore, necessary to use a multiplier to increase this speed of rotation.
A multiplier adapts the speed of the wind turbine to that of the electric generator (which is generally driven at around 1500 rpm). This multiplier is equipped with a mechanical brake disc actuated in an emergency when the aerodynamic brake fails or in the event of maintenance of the wind turbine.
The case of wind speed being variable
- Pitching of the blades (Pitch control ).
- Change of direction of the wind turbine (Yaw control).
- Release of the forces applied to the blades of the wind turbine (Stall control).
Some advantages of wind energy
In 2019, The 5,000 Denmark wind turbines generate 13 .5 terawatts (TW) of energy, equivalent to 40 percent of Denmark’s need for electrical energy.
Negative impact on areas