Windmills from 1180 to 2020


#1.History of windmills

The history of the operation of the first windmill dates back to the first century, where Heron describes it at this time as the first machine used in power generation in history, and the vertical axis of the mills was used for the first time in Sistan (East  Persia, Iran now) in the ninth century as described by Muslim geographers, and the horizontal axis of mills Air of the kind normally used today was invented in northwestern Europe in 1180.

Windmills spread in Iran in the seventh century, and windmills had sails that revolved around a vertical axis and were mainly used for grinding grain.

Windmills had spread to Europe by the twelfth century and the first wind turbine to produce electricity was a battery charger in 1887  invented by Scottish James Blythe. At that time, inventors discovered that windmills produced more energy if sails or feathers were rotated on a vertical rod.

This discovery eventually led to the development of Dutch windmills that were widely used in the Netherlands for draining water from the ground. It had four long arms, with cloth sails, or wooden slats, or shutters installed on it and it was imperative to move the vertical sails installed on the horizontal bar, to counter the wind. The first solution to this difficulty was the vertical mill, which is a windmill with a central shaft on which the main part of the mill can be rotated. As for the windmill, only the head is removable.

And several months later, the American inventor Charles Wow, built the first wind turbines that automatically operated to produce electricity in Cleveland and Ohio and at the beginning of the twentieth century there were millions of turbines scattered all over the world to pump groundwater and grind grains and generate electricity in rural areas, but in The 1940s wind turbines became little used, and this was the result of the widespread of fossil fuels.

During the seventies, the use of turbines and seeking to develop them in order to generate electricity after the oil crisis in Western countries and to search for clean energy.

#2.Development of windmills

In 1772 Andrew Meikle, a Scot, invented his spring sail, substituting hinged shutters for sailcloths, like those of a Venetian blind, and controlling them on each sail by a connecting bar and a spring. With the mill at rest, each spring had to be individually adjusted according to the power required; the sails were then self-regulating within limits.

Sir William Cubitt invented his “patent sail” in 1807 combining Meikle’s hinged shutters with Hooper’s remote chain control from the ground through a rod passing through a hole drilled through the wind shaft the process was comparable to the process of an umbrella; the sails were self-regulated by varying the weights hanging on the chain.

In 1789, instead of shutters, Stephen Hooper in England used roller blinds and designed remote control to allow all blinds to be adjusted simultaneously while the mill was at work.
Daniel Halladay invented the annular-sailed windpump in the United States in 1854 and Stuart Perry’s steel production in 1883 led to worldwide adoption because, while inefficient, it was cheap and reliable.

#3.Design and working of new wind Turbines

wind turbines
horizontal axis wind turbines
Rotating blades or sails 
They act as barriers against the wind in their simple form when the wind forces the blades to move, and some have shifted their energy to rotation to create kinetic energy.
Rotation axis
Connected to the rotation center of these blades or sails and fixed to the ground, it transfers the energy resulting from rotation to the generator to generate electrical energy through the generator.
Engine structure contains

1.Gearbox: increases the speed of the shaft between the center of the rotor and the generator.
2.Generator: It uses the cyclic energy from the column to generate electricity using electromagnetism, it uses the energy generated by the blades, sails, and behavior connected through the column to produce electrical energy, which generates an electrical voltage coming out of the power lines for distribution to the regions. Electronic control unit: a monitoring system that stops the turbine in the event of a malfunction and controls the deflection mechanism. Tower: supports the rotor and the motor structure, and raises the entire installation to the highest height. Electrical devices: bring electricity from the generator down through the tower and control many elements of the turbine safety.

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Windmills have been known for hundreds of years and were generally dependent on wind energy for operating grain mills, especially in the lowlands of the Netherlands, as well as used to draw water from no bar in the United States and Australian farms .. Now, these wind turbines are used to generate electric energy at the level of electrical networks National for large types that generate energy from each turbine to 10 megawatts in many European countries, Australia and New Zealand, and in some countries, the rate of generating these turbines reaches 75% of the electricity generation capacity in them .. due to the presence of winds at an appropriate speed and almost all days of the year.
The most important use of the windmill in some areas was for grinding grain. and in other areas, it uses inland drainage and water pumping was just as important. The windmill has been used as a source of electrical energy from P. La Cour’s mill, built in Denmark in 1890 with patented sails and double ghosts on a steel tower. the use of wind turbines for the production of electrical energy resumed in the 1970s.

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